An Independent analysis prepared by:
Gary Fuller, Stav Friedman and Ian Mudway
Environmental Research Group, Imperial College London

The evidence that air pollution harms our health throughout our lives, from conception to old age, was
summarised in the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) report Every breath we take: the lifelong impact
of air pollution, in 2016(2)
Since this time the evidence has continued to accumulate. This new evidence summary builds on the
RCP report by addressing the impacts of air pollution across the life course, reviewing key studies
published in the interim period on the links between air pollution and ill health. The note is divided
into sections focusing on different stages of life, including evidence regarding the impact of air
pollution from pre-foetal development until early adulthood. It aims to summarise key evidence,
drawing on recent authoritative academic reviews and research studies, with an emphasis on those
carried out in the United Kingdom, London, or cities with similar air pollution climates.

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